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Acid-Base Balance Tutorial

by "Grog" (Alan W. Grogono), Professor Emeritus, Tulane University Department of Anesthesiology


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References"You will find it very good practice always to verify your references, sir!" – Dr. Routh (Quarterly Review, July 1878.)

Alphabetical Order by First Author

Below is a short list of the principle references that I used when preparing this website.

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Astrup PB, Severinghaus JW:
The History of Blood Gases, Acids, and Bases. Munsgaard, Copenhagen. 1986.
See the 6 articles in J. Clin Monit: Electrochemistry, Acid-Base Measurements, Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen Electrode, Oxygen measurement, Oximetry,
Berend K. N Engl J Med 378:1419-1428; 2018
Gezer M, Bulucu F, Ozturk K, Kaldirim U, Emrah Y. Turk J Emerg Med v.15(1); 2015
Gilbert R, Auchincloss JH, Kuppinger M, Thomas MV:
Stability of the arterial/alveolar oxygen partial pressure ratio. Effects of low ventilation/perfusion regions. Crit Care Med 7:267-72, 1979.
Grogono AW, Byles PH, Hawke W:
An in-vivo representation of acid-base balance. Lancet, ii:499, 1976.
Grogono AW:
Acid-base balance. International Anesthesiology Clinics, Problems and Advances in Respiratory Therapy, Spring 1986, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1986
Matthews AJ, Stead AL, Abbott TR:
Acid-base control duration hypothermia, Anaesthesia 39:649, 1984.
Morgan, JT:
The Stewart Approach – One Clinician's Perspective
Rastegar A:
Clinical Utility of Stewart's Method in Diagnosis and Management of Acid-Base Disorders Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009 Jul;4(7):1267-74.
Reeves RB, Rahn H:
Patterns in vertebrate acid-base regulation, Evolution of Respiratory processes: A Comparative Approach. Edited by Wood, S.C., Lenfant, C. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., pp 225-252, 1979.
Sahlin K, Alvestrand A, Bergstrom J, Hultman E:
Intracellular pH and bicarbonate concentration as determined in biopsy samples from the quadriceps muscle of man at rest. Clin Sci Mol Med 53:459-466, 1977.
Schlichtig R, Grogono AW, Severinghaus JW:
Human PaCO2 and Standard Base Excess Compensation for Acid-Base Imbalance. Critical Care Medicine. 26:1173-1179. 1998.
Severinghaus JH, Astrup PB:
History of blood gas analysis I. The development of electrochemistry. J Clin Mon. 1(3)180-92, 1985.
Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB:
History of blood gas analysis II. pH and acid-base balance measurements. J Clin Mon. 1(4):259-77, 1985.
Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB:
History of blood gas analysis. III. Carbon dioxide tension.
J Clin Mon. 2(1) 60-73, 1986.
Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB:
History of blood gas analysis. IV. Leland Clark's oxygen electrode.
J Clin Mon. 2(2) 125-139, 1986.
Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB:
History of blood gas analysis. V. Oxygen measurement.
J Clin Mon. 2(3) 174-189, 1986.
Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB:
History of blood gas analysis. V1. Oxymetry.
J Clin Mon. 2(4) 270-288, 1986.
Shulman DS, Kauffman JJ, Eisenstein MM, Rapoport SI:
Blood pH and brain uptake of 14C-morphine. Anesthesiology 61:540, 1984.
Siggaard-Andersen O, Engel K:
A New Acid-Base Nomogram. An Improved Method for the calculation of the Relevant Blood Acid-Base Data.Scan J Clin Lab Invest 12:177, 1960.
Siggaard-Andersen O:
The pH-log pCO2 acid-base nomogram revised .Scan J Clin Lab Invest 14:598, 1962.
Siggaard-Andersen O:
Titratable acid or base of body fluids. (with the equation for Base Excess)Ann NY. Acad Sci 133:41, 1966.
Siggaard-Andersen O:
An acid-base chart for arterial blood with normal and pathophysiological reference areas. Scan J Clin Lab Invest 27:239-245, 1971.
Stewart, PA:
How to understand acid-base. A quantitative acid-base primer for biology and medicine. New York/Oxford: Elsevier 1981.
Stewart, PA:
Modern quantitative acid-base chemistry. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 61:1444-1461, 1983.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Chemistry Fundamentals Program - Acid-Base
An excellent introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry
Williams JJ, Marshall BE:
Editorial: A fresh look at an old question. Anesthesiology 56:1, 1982.
Xu Y, Cohen Y, Litt L, Chang L-H, James TL:
Tolerance of low cerebral intracellular pH in rats during hyperbaric hypercapnia. Stroke 22:1303-1307, 1991.
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Acid-Base Tutorial
Alan W. Grogono
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