by "Grog" (Alan W. Grogono), Professor Emeritus, Tulane University Department of Anesthesiology

Acid-Base Tutorial Home Page

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Must it be so complicated?

When you first study clinical acid-base balance, this is the natural question. It is partly explained by a series of Topsy Turvy Decisions made by some of our eminent forbears. The object of this website is to explain this history and make acid-base balance as simple as possible.

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The Bird's Eye-View, Two Components:

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Why do we care?

Heart Variations in pH or PCO2 used to be viewed as though they were the causes of pathology. Experiments by Xu et al have shown, however, that very low pH and very high PCO2 may both be well tolerated when circulation and oxygenation are maintained. The implication is that abnormal levels of PCO2 or pH are best used as indicators of serious trouble, but not as causes themselves.

Getting Started

Arrow Physiology and history are both good places to start for most people.
Alternatively, use the Index to select the topic that interests you most.

Interactive Acid-Base Diagram

Diagram An interactive acid-base diagram is a major feature of this website. It allows numerical values to be visualized on an interactive diagram and simultaneously provides continuous text interpretation. The diagram operates in several modes allowing recognition of classical zones as well as self testing.

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Computing Techniques

Computer The mathematics and programming underlying the interactive diagrams and equations are described on separate pages. This site employs Javascript, and Pop-Ups. To get the best out of this website, these must be active.


Mail Please Contact me: I appreciate receiving your feedback. If you have ideas comments or suggestions, or if you find errors or spelling mistakes, please Contact Me. Thank you.

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Peer Reviewed by AAMC MedEdPORTAL

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It is My Pleasure to Acknowledge and Thank:

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About the Author:

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Acid-Base Tutorial
Alan W. Grogono
Small Logo Copyright Oct 2016.
All Rights Reserved
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