by "Grog" (Alan W. Grogono), Professor Emeritus, Tulane University Department of Anesthesiology
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Classical Acid-Base Examples

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Classical Examples:

Acute Respiratory
1. Acidosis || 2. Alkalosis

Chronic Respiratory
3. Acidosis || 4. Alkalosis

5. Acidosis || 6. Alkalosis

7. Acidosis || 8. Alkalosis

Complex Examples
    Case 9   ||   Case 10  

  Case 11   ||   Case 12  


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2. Acute Respiratory Alkalosis.

A middle aged man weighing 75 kg is anesthetized in preparation for a craniotomy. The ventilator is set to an exhaled tidal volume of 700 ml and a rate of 12 breaths per minute. As a result of this hyperventilation the PCO2 has fallen to 28 mmHg (pure respiratory alkalosis) but there has been no time for any metabolic compensation to develop.

Acid-Base Zones

Classical Zones

The diagram shows the position of the principal zones. These zones are based on the review of the literature described by Schlichtig, Grogono, and Severinghaus. The arrows indicate typical acidosis and alkalosis. The labels in the black circles correspond to the legend in the table below.

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Acidosis  Slope
AR   Acute Respiratory Acidosis:  Delta SBE = 0 
CR   Chronic Respiratory Acidosis:   Delta SBE = 0.4 x Delta PCO2
M   Metabolic Acidosis:  Delta PCO2 = 1.0 x Delta SBE
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Alkalosis  Slope
AR   Acute Respiratory Alkalosis:  Delta SBE = 0 
CR   Chronic Respiratory Alkalosis:     Delta SBE = 0.4 x Delta PCO2
M   Metabolic Alkalosis:   Delta PCO2 = 0.6 x Delta SBE

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Acid-Base Tutorial
Alan W. Grogono
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